Lecture 06: Encoding, Decoding

8:15 – 8:25 am

Distribute and review The Circuit of Culture

8:25 – 8:40 am
Discuss Encoding, Decoding

Stuart Hall

  • b. 1932; d. 2014
  • Jamaican immigrant to the UK
  • One of the founding members of the Birmingham School of Cultural Studies

Encoding, Decoding

hall_encoding-decoding diagram

  • If no ‘meaning’ is taken, there can be no ‘consumption’. If the meaning is not articulated in practice, it has no effect. (1993, 91)
  • The institutional structures of broadcasting, with their practices and networks of production, their organized relations and technical infrastructures, are required to produce a programme. Production, here, constructs the message. (1993, 92)
  • The codes of encoding and decoding may not be perfectly symmetrical. (1993, 93)
  • There will be very few instances in which signs organized in a discourse signify only their ‘literal’ (that is, near-universally consensualized) meaning. (1993, 97)
  • In speaking of dominant meanings, then, we are not talking about a one-sided process which governs how all events will be signified. It consists of the ‘work’ required to enforce, win plausibility for and command as legitimate a decoding. of the event within the limit of dominant definitions in which it has been connotatively signified. (1993, 99)


8:40 – 9:25 am

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9:25 – 9:30 am

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